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European Democracies, 8th Edition. Markus Crepaz, University of Georgia. Jurg Steiner, University of Carolina at Chapel Hill and University of Bern. Read "European Democracies" by Markus M.L. Crepaz available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. European Democracies is . European Democracies is an introduction to the politics and governments of Western, Central, European Democracies. 9th Edition. By Markus M.L. Crepaz.

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They were state financed, hierarchical, claimed to be the arbiter between the individual and God, and were actively engaged in political affairs, particularly as far as the alleviation of the plight of the poor was concerned. They speak to the wretched living conditions of the poor, the inhumane working conditions of laborers, and the need for a just wage.

The church presented itself as an agent of social reform and asked for active support from the people. In the view of the Catholic Church, the plight of the working class had to be seen as part of an organic whole where the whole community would be affected ifworkers were treated unjustly. On the other hand, American sects never emphasized community.

Rather, they highlighted individuality and the lone relation between God and the believer.

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Max Weber described the Protestant work ethic as being based on competitive, rational, individualistic behavior, which encouraged entrepreneurial achievement.

The religious tradition of Protestant dissent has called on believers to follow their own interpretation of the scriptures, undiluted by formal religious institutions. In most Protestant sects, there is no agent or mediator between the believer and God as in Catholicism, where the church plays this role.

In Webers interpretation, responsibility for leading a virtuous life rests with the individual who stands alone before God, as committed sins cannot be absolved through confession. This puts a heavy burden upon a Protestant believer, for when the day of reckoning comes, all deeds will be added up cumulatively. They tend to see things in black and whitepeople of other countries are either good or bad, behavior is either right or wrong.

In the words of Seymour Martin Lipset, Americans are utopian moralists who press hard to institutionalize virtue, to destroy evil people, and eliminate wicked institutions and practices. Bushs single-minded pursuit to smoke out the evildoers and the widespread references to scriptures that punctuated his speeches: To endorse a war and call on people to kill others and die for the country, Americans must define their role in a conflict as being on Gods side against Satan, for morality against evil.

This led to a shift in focus away from the community to the individual, from objective social conditions to the piety of the individual and what the individual could do to improve himself or herself.

Indeed, Americans are workaholics. Statistics indicate that Americans are in the top three together with Japan and Australia in terms of hours worked per year. The basic premise on which the state could extract large sums of money through taxation and distribute it in the form of benefits was that most people believed that the recipients of public funds were people like themselves, facing difficulties that they themselves might face one day.

In the classic study Citizenship and Social Class, T. Marshall explains the foundations on which social citizenship rests: Citizenship requires.

If, however, there is a perception that taxes are paid by one type of people and received by another, the willingness to support such redistributive schemes is reduced. This is the major finding of a study by Alberto Alesina et al.

Europe is not immune from such stereotypes as it confronts for the first time increased diversity as a result of massive immigration. As more and more immigrants stream into European countries, will Europeans be willing to continue funding the welfare state as the likely recipients of welfare become increasingly very different from them in terms of race, religion, ethnicity, and language?

One of the authors Markus M.

Crepaz has further researched this question and concludesthat increased immigration will not lead to an Americanization oftheEuropean welfare state for two main reasons: First, the European welfare state became fully developed before widespread immigration occurred, in contrast to what took place in America.

Second, the presence of an encompassing welfare state affects the levels of social trust in society, thus reducing resentment toward foreigners. However, this list can shed light on many differences Structure of the Book between European and American politics. The attentive reader of this book will notice many such differences discussed in the following chapters, particularly in Chapters 2 through 9.

These differences represent the ultimate causes as to why we observe variations in, for example, income inequality, voter turnout, poverty, and life chances between America and Europe. However, we keep making comparisons with the United States in the individual chapters.

We will also not limit ourselves to the present time, but, as in this chapter, we will give historical depth to our analysis. Social Movements 8. Immigration and the Welfare State 9.

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Economics, Politics, and the Greek Tragedy of Explaining Policy Outcomes Nationalism and Ethnicity Power Sharing in Deeply Divided Societies He has been at this institution since and is the Head of the Department of International Affairs since He has published numerous articles on electoral engineering, European politics, interpersonal trust, immigration, and corporatism.

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If, however, there is a perception that taxes are paid by one type of people and received by another, the willingness to support such redistributive schemes is reduced. download the eBook. This last point highlights the massive differences between European and American politics. The motto of feudalismthe social relations between lords and vassalscould be described as toserve and protect. We find the answers to these questions in the next section.

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It also surveys issues ranging from parties and policy to democratization and globalization. According to Turner, however, the frontier, with its vast lands to the west, turned out to be the line of most rapid and effective Americanization,15 while this very same process spelled doom for the Native Americans.

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