Faculty of Engineering/Civil Engineering Department. CE Specifications and Quantity Surveying - 3 credits. Quantity Surveying. Class Notes. By. Scubject.: Estimation and Quantity Surveying. Class.: IV Year CIVIL being prepared by me and it meets the knowledge requirement of the university curriculum. About Author: Mohammed Haroon. The Author has done Bachelor Degree in Civil Engineering from K.B.N.C.E, Gulbarga University, Karnataka and Master.
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rialadhamssubsca.ml - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt ) or view presentation slides online. FREE DOWNLOAD QUANTITY SURVEYING QS BOOKS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS ARCHITECTS ESTIMATORS RATE ANALYST PDF PPT DOC FILES EBOOK. PDF | "Quantity surveying" can be dated back to the antiquated Egyptian civilization where they utilized dedicated personnel for the completion.
Purpose of Quantity Surveying The purpose of quantity surveying hence the preparation of Bill of quantities is: i. Assist the client to have an accurate estimate of the volume of work as well as the required budget.
To assist in the accurate preparation of tenders, by providing uniform measurement of quantities. To give an accurate checklist of work accomplished iv. To assist in the certification of payments v.
To give insight into the required variation work amounts. Measurement of Civil Works Measurement of civil works includes the billing of each trade of work either from drawings or the building itself for defining the extent of works under each trade.
In order to avoid ambiguity in measuring quantities, there is now a recommended principle of measurement in construction activities.
Many professional organizations publish recommendations on units of measurement, degree of accuracy etc. Measurement of Civil Works Cont. Principles of Measurement The following are list of the basic principles of quantity surveying, applicable to all items of work. Each work section of a bill shall contain a brief description of the nature and location of work. Work shall be measured net as fixed in position. Measure the full work area and adjust deductions later. Items which are to be measured by area shall state the thickness or such other information as may be appropriate.
Items which are to be measured by length or depth shall state the cross-sectional size and shape, girth or ranges of girths or such other information as may be appropriate.
Items which are to be measured by weight shall state the material thickness and unit weight if appropriate Ex. Duct work 8 3. These would normally be initial and terminal These are lump sum; they do not change with time ii. Time related costs. The costs depend on the time taken ,the longer the time taken the higher the costs e. Preparing valuation becomes easy e. Valuing variations , if you bring a plant on site , employer does not provide information and your work is disrupted , you have a value to claim.
If you had indicated as time related i. Claims of disruption of progress move easy 4. Ascertained and liquidated damages These are the cases valued in terms of money which the contractor pays to the employers when he fails to finish the work, within the contracted period of time or the extended contract period without any reason.
A stated rate of fine usually per day is stated in the contract document signed by both the clients and the contractor.
Retention fund Retention provision is mainly made in building contracts for the retains by the employer of a proportion of money due to the contractor on each interim certificate, this is normally calculated as the total contractors claim The objective retention is to safe guard the employer against unsatisfactory performance of the contractor.
The retained money is released to the contractor at the expiry of the defect liability period after ascertaining that the work is free of any defects. Variations, the term variation in construction industry means the alternation or modification of the design, quality or quantity of work as shown upon the contract drawings as described by or referred to in the contract bills and include the addition omission or substitution of any work and the alternation of the kind or standard of any of the materials Variation order, this is a written instruction by the architect to the contractor, instructing him to alter or modify the design, quality or quantity of the works as shown up on contract drawing as described by or referred to in the contract bills.
Types of contractual certificates Interim certificate, this is a formal written due the architect to the contractor, certifying payments on account in installments to contractor by the employer. The stages of the construction at which payments should be made are agreed upon by the architect and the contractor on behalf of the client so that the contractor is relieved of a heavy financial out lay of completing the project and the client is safe guarded against poor work quantity.
Usually the contract surveyor prepares the valuation which consists of:- i. Value of work executed properly ii. If the architect is in agreement, he will then issue a certificate to the client to process payments. The fluctuation clause in the contract agreement and schedule of conditions for building work provides for an increase in the amount due to the contractor by the employer by the net decrease in price Penultimate certificate This is the certificate issued by the employer to the contractor at the practical completion of the work.
Note the difference between the contractor s estimates and the BOQ is at the former is not as detailed as the latter ,since it is not prepared for interpretation by number of bidders. Staying on the site, takes time to inspect the materials and workmanship seeing to it that their specification. He has the authority to reject whatever is not in conformation with the works specifications B. He keeps record of the progress of the project and he gives a weekly report to the architect The architect is however, not relieved of his responsibilities and duties by the action of clerk of work.
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Conceptualisisation of the project 2. Mobilization of the resources His responsibility include 1. Defining the intended purpose of the project 2. Obtaining approvals ,for the project from the relative authorities before execution of the work 3. Mobilization of resources necessary for the project including appointment of the competent project managers 4. Appointment and approval of a suitable contractor or sub-contractor 5.
Signing an agreement with the contractor 6. Taking over the project on completion 7. He has two major functions 1. To conceptualize and develop the clients vision of the project 2. To do sign, document and formulate a contract for the project. Responsibilities of the contract manager 1.
During execution of work, they supervise the activities of the contract and ensure work is done by the contractor, are in conformity with the architect s specifications.
Values the work done by the contractor, and processes the necessary document for the client consideration and action. Communicates information, requests, views, variation and other requirements between the client and contractor.
Addresses and approves the materials used on site by the contractor ,issues instructions ,drawings, specifications and other necessary data to the contractor ,when and where is required. Responsibility 1. Makes an offer to the client to execute the works the contractor bids 2. He signs the contract with the client 3. Under takes planning and management of the project work 4. Mobilizes labour, materials ,plants and equipment required for work 5. Carries out the work in accordance with the requirements laid out in the contract documents Resolving conflicts During the execution of the contract works, several issues may arise which will affect the progress or manner of executing the work Such issue may lead to a Breach of contract by either party, which may in turn lead to extra claim by the affected party or termination of a contract.
Some of the common issues that arise in the process of execution of the contract include the following; a Delays in handing over the site to the contractor b Availing drawing or detailed information for the work and issuing instructions 20 Q u a n t i t y S u r v e y i n g n o t e s p r e p a r e d B y M r. Extension of construction times ii.
Variations ,discrepancies in drawings, specifications or BOQ iii. Un foreseen circumstances iv. Testing and opening up the covered works v. Fluctuations vi. Site inspections; regular inspections of work in progress is a key element in avoiding mis- understanding among the stakeholders.
Site supervision; the client should have a competent site representative on site to monitor all activities Site diary; the contractor is always mandated to document all site activities on a day to day basis which include: progress of work Hindrance like uncondussive weather ,strikes or demonstrations, official visitors, inspectors must endorse in the sit diary and make remarks on their findings.
Claims; we have two types of claims commonly found in contract works execution process 1. Contractual claims ; are claims which appear in the contract documents ,and are documented by the concerned parties, they are therefore, catered for under the contract 21 Q u a n t i t y S u r v e y i n g n o t e s p r e p a r e d B y M r.
Ex- contractual claims; are claims which are un catered for under the contract, they lie in the hands of the clients and the contract manager has no powers to deal with them as his authority is limited to what is specified in the contract.
In the event of bankruptcy of the contractor II. In case the contractor liquidates his assets to pay off his creditors III. If the contractors neglects or refuses to provide the full implement of workers and personnel required for the work and as attached to his bid.
If he fails or refuses to honor claims by his sub-contractor ,suppliers or workers V. If he fails to provide equipment or plant of the capacity or quality required for the execution of the works VI.
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If he continually fails to comply with the laws ,regulations or ordinance for with the instruction given by the supervisor VII. If the contractor violate the provisions of the contract in any other way In the eventuality of the occurrence of any of the above, the client shall notify the contractor in writing. The contractor shall have to correct the defect within five working days ,following the date of receipt of the written notification from the client.
Failure to do so ,the client may ,without prejudice to any other remedy. It is thought appropriate to outline certain conventions and define some terms, which apply to bill preparation and measurementprocesses generally 5. In this course we shall confine our-selves in the traditional method, which comprises: 1.
Taking off - taking dimensions from drawings and entering them, with appropriate description on dimensions sheets.
Squaring the dimension — working out the areas, volumes etc. Abstracting - transferring the totals and items from the dimension sheets to abstract sheets in bill order and collecting together quantities like items so that they may be cast to totals in readiness for billing.
Billing - Writing the draft bill from the abstract Stages , and above are collecting known as working up. Every calculation and every transferred entry performed during any stage is checked by second person to ensure there has been no arithmetical or copying errors. Each sheet is ruled with an identical set of four columns each side of vertical center line. The squaring column is used for entering resultant calculated from the dimensions and their multiplication factors. The description column is used for entering the description of the work to which the dimensions relate.
Additionally, the right hand side of description column is used to build up dimensions; these preliminary calculations are known as waste. Location reference of the work are sometimes entered on the right hand side of the description column. Dimension sheets are used working from top to bottom of the left hand set columns and then continuing down from top to bottom of the right hand set of columns. Completed dimension sheets should be numbered.
On small jobs where one person is taking the whole of dimensions they can be numbered consecutively as the measuring proceeds. On larger jobs where a number of people are involved in taking dimensions , it is prudent to number sheets consecutively as batches are issue for taking off and to keep a running total of the sheets issued. When the completed sheets are collected a check can then be made to ensure that all sheets are accounted for Spoiled and misused sheets should be retained until this check is complete.
On jobs with large number of sheets index to dimensions is useful. Drawings will usually be dimensioned in millimeters or in metres of two decimal places. Waste collections should be made using the dimensions given on the drawings. Rounding off to two places of decimals for the transfer to the dimension column should be left until the waste is collected total.
Dimensions are set down under each other in the dimension column with a line drawn beneath, as shown. A single dimension with a line beneath indicates that it is a linear dimension. Two dimensions with a line beneath indicate a set of two dimensions from which the area of surface is to be calculated. Three dimensions with a line beneath indicate a set of dimensions from which the volume of solid is to be calculated. Numbers for numbered items are entered in the centre of the dimension column with a line beneath.
This order should always be used. Timesing Timesing is effected by entering the required number followed by an olblique stroke. The conventions are illustrated below. They are expressed as equivalent vulgar fractions. The line between the numerator and demoninator of the vulgar fractions should be horizontal, to prevent it being mistaken for obligue timesing stroke as illustrated.
Dotting on When repeating dimensions, which have been timesed, previously it may be found that they cannot be multiplied and it is required to add. In this circumistances resort is made to what is called dotting on.
A dot in the timesing column is used in place of the conventional plus sign to indicate an addition to multiplying factor previously entered the conventional is illustrated below; i.
Locational differences given at the right hand side of the description column should be used whenever possible. See worked example below ; An abstract provides the facility to arrange items in bill order and to collect together the quantities of like items. It will be found convenient in some instances to transfer items direct from the dimensions sheets to appropriate place in the bill. The operations is termed: billing direct. When an abstract is used ,it will note items which are not abstracted and which are to be billed direct.
The dimension sheet will also be marked to indicate the items or series of items noted in the abstracting for billing. Bills of quantities shall fully describe and accurately represent the quantity and quality of the works to be carried out. Work, which cannot be measured, shall be given a provisional sum. Work the extent of which is not known shall be described as provisional or given in bills approximate quantizes.
SMM A1 Thus the billed descriptions are to be comprehensive and sufficient to enable the estimator fully understand what required and to give a realistic price. All quantities must be accurate as the information available permits, as inaccurate bills cause major problems.
It is most important that all work whose extent cannot be determined with a reasonable degree of accuracy should be described as provisional bills of quantities and items of this kind should be kept separate from those, which contain accurate quantities. In this way the contractor is made aware of the uncertain nature of the quantity entered and that it will be any work where the Architect in unable to give full details as the time of measurements.
SMM A2 emphasizes the measurements that relate to work net as fixed in position and are to be taken to the nearest 10mm 5mm and over the regaurded as 10mm and less than 5mm shall be disregaurded. Lengths are entered in the dimension column in metres to two places of decimals.
When billing in metres the quantity is billed to the nearest whole unit whole unit SMM A6 a and b. Where void allowances are mentioned in standard method, as for example 0. The cramping of dimensions is a common failing among examination candidates and does cause loss of marks.
All steps that have been taken in arriving at dimensions ,no matter how elementary or trivial they appear ,should be entered in the waste section of the description column. Following this procedure will do much to prevent doubts and misunderstanding concerning dimensions arising at some future date.
It also enables all calculations for dimensions to be checked.
In this way there can be no doubt as to shape of the item being measured. It will be noted that dimensions are usually recorded in meters to two places of decimals with a dot between the meters and fractions and line drawn across the dimension column under each set of figures. The unit symbol mm has been omitted from all descriptions since it is considered superfluous unnecessary and should not cause any confusion.
The adjustment for the brickwork ,facework, finishings to the window and door openings are taken at the time of taking - off the windows or doors. This is more logical and satisfactory methods of measuring and results in smaller overall error occurring in window or door is inadvertently omitted from dimensions. It is sometimes necessary to build up over all dimensions from series of figured dimensions and this work must be set down in waste on the right hand side of the description column.
General requirements Considerable care and skill is required to frame adequate, and yet at the same time, concise description. This is probably one of the most difficult aspects of taking off. Work and one which students should take great pain to master.
In addition to covering up all the matters detailed in the SMM, the description must include all the information which the estimator will require to build up a realistic price for the item in question. Order of wording The first few words of a description should clearly indicate the nature of the item being described.
The description is badly worded if the reader has to wait almost to the end of description to determine the subject of the item. Measurements of similar items Where an entry of the dimension paper is followed by a similar item, the use of the word ditto or do meaning that which has been said before, will permit the description of the next items to be reduced considerably. Extra over tems When measuring certain items of work that are describes as extra over another item of work ,which has been previously measured ,the estimator will price the extra or additional cost involved in the second item as compared with the first.
Deemed to be included items The expression deemed to be included is used in the SMM to indicate that this particular work is covered in the billed item without specific mention. Typical example is getting out excavated materials in excavation work.
Preambles Preambles are introductory clauses entered at the head of each section or trade in bills of quantities ,relating to matters which affect the contractor in pricing the bills of quantities and which ought to be drawn to his notice. Prime cost sums The term prime cost sum P. C sum is defined as a term for work or service to be executed by a nominated sub-contractor ,a statutory authority or public under taking or for materials or goods to be obtained from a nominated supplier.
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Such sums shall be deemed to be excusive of any profit required be general contractor and provision shall be made for addition thereof. A typical example of prime cost as follows; Provide the P. Provisonal sums The term provisional sum is defined in the SMM as a sum provided for work or for costs which can not be foreseen ,defined or detailed at the time the tendering documents are issued.
Attendance — These are charges for facilities provided by a main contractor to a sub-contractor on site, eg. Water, scaffolding, insurance, storage, access etc. These facilities enable the sub-contractor to carry out his activities. Sport items —Items that cannot be precisely described or priced from a bill description requiring a site visit or inspection in order to assess their costs e.Valuation for interim certificates iv.
Here a list of all materials to be used for the expected works is given and the contractor attaches the price on each. If the architect is in agreement, he will then issue a certificate to the client to process payments. SMM A1 Thus the billed descriptions are to be comprehensive and sufficient to enable the estimator fully understand what required and to give a realistic price.
Quantity surveying is a term or processes used in the construction industry to take measurements of civil works, prepare specifications, and estimate the cost of works either for each trade of work or for the whole project.
Methods of dealing with errors 4. Masonry Work The unit of measurements are: Merits It gives a chance of tendering to a firm which wishes to do so.