Construction equipment management for engineers, estimators, and owners. Book · January with 1, Reads. Cite this publication. Construction equipment management for engineers, estimators, and owners / Douglas . of construction engineering and project management in the civil engineering department at the info/gsd/pdf/ (accessed: July 30, ). Construction Equipment Management for Engineers, Estimators, and Owners Civil and Environmental Engineering A Series of Reference.

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Construction Equipment Management for Engineers, Estimators, and Owners ( Civil and Environmental Engineering) [Douglas D. Gransberg, Calin M. Popescu, . Construction Equipment Management for Engineers, Estimators, and Owners. loading. Construction Equipment Management for Engineers. Construction Equipment Management for Engineers, Estimators, and Owners - CRC Press Book.

Murthy Estimating Building Costs, Calin M. Popescu, Kan Phaobunjong, and Nuntapong Ovararin Karol Chung Reinforced Soil Engineering: Advances in Research and Practice, edited by Hoe I. Ling, Dov Leshchinsky, and Fumio Tatsuoka Project Scheduling Handbook, Jonathan F. Hutchings Environmental Pollution Control Microbiology: McKinney Khatsuria Wind and Earthquake Resistant Buildings: Structural Analysis and Design, Bungale S.

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Joe Middlebrooks, Sherwood C. Reed Water Treatment Unit Processes: Physical and Chemical, David Hendricks Gransberg, Calin M. Popescu, and Richard C. Ryan 3. RYAN 4. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

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Gransberg], Calin M. Popescu, Richard C. Construction equipment--Management. Engineering--Equipment and supplies--Management. Construction industry--Management. Popescu, Calin. Ryan, Richard C. G68 Preface Construction Equipment Management for Engineers, Estimators, and Owners is intended to be a reference book for construction project managers, estimators, construction equipment fleet managers, and professional engineers.

The book also contains information relevant to both the public and private sectors. It is written as a guide for individuals who need to estimate the cost of equipment on a given project and do not have data at their fingertips because their routine business does not involve a lot of equipment-related construction. The authors also hope that their book will be useful to the public agency equipment manager whose need is to minimize equipment costs rather than to maximize the profit earned by the equipment.

The book is useful to all parties in the architecture, engineering, and construction indus-tries as well as to project owners. The first chapter describes the evolution of construction equipment and serves to set the stage for the following chapters that provide specific up-to-date information on the state of art in the area.

The chapters on estimating equipment ownership and operating costs and determining economic life and replacement policy will be of great value to construction estimators.

The chapters on determining the optimum mix of equipment and estimating the equipment productivity show the estimator how to maximize the profit of an equipment-intensive construction project. The chapter on scheduling demon-strates how to convert a linear schedule into a precedence diagram for use in a project that has a mandated scheduling methodology. This information has not been published before to the best of our knowledge and demonstrates to the equipment manager how to ensure that a production-driven, equipment-intensive project can be scheduled to achieve target production rates and hence target equipment-related unit costs and profits.

The book also shows managers and engineers how to avoid making costly common mistakes during project equipment selection. It contains a matrix that will help the novice equipment manager select the proper piece of equipment based on the requirements of the project.

It is full of detailed examples of the types of calculations made to allow both public and private equipment-owning organizations to determine an optimum equipment utilization plan for any project regardless of their levels of experience. Finally, the equipment safety chapter describes how to develop an Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA job safety analysis for an equipment-intensive project, thus making this onerous and essential task easier for the equipment manager.

This book is the brainchild of Dr. Calin Popescu of the University of Texas and flows from an early work undertaken to support his graduate civil engineering class in construction equipment management.

Construction Equipment Management for Engineers, Estimators, and Owners

Professor Richard Ryan of the University of Oklahoma blended much of his work on managing construction equipment in building construction for his construction science undergraduate class on construction equipment into Dr. Doug Gransberg added his research on optimizing equipment fleet size and composition as well as his experience in applying engineering economics and simulations to produce a comprehensive treatise on this subject that ranges from the rigorous mathematical analysis of equipment operations to the pragmatic discussion of the equipment maintenance programs needed to guarantee the production assumed in a cost estimate.

The authors hope that the 6. Douglas D. Gransberg Calin M. Popescu Richard C. Ryan 7. Authors Douglas D. Gransberg is the Sam K. Viersen, Jr. He received both his B. He is a registered professional engineer in Oklahoma, Texas, and Oregon, a certified cost engineer, a designated design-build professional, and a chartered surveyor by the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors in the U.

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Before moving to academia in , Professor Gransberg spent over 20 years in the U. Army Corps of Engineers. He also owns an active construction management consulting practice, with many clients from the public sector, such as the Federal Highway Administration, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, U. Professor Gransberg has taught continuing profes-sional education seminars across the nation in the area of design-build contracting, architect-engineer design contracting, and cost engineering for the American Society of Civil Engineers for the past 9 years.

He has published more than 60 journal articles and reports.

Calin M. Popescu has a B. He is a registered professional engineer in Texas. For 30 years starting from , he taught various courses in the areas of construction engineering and project management in the civil engineering department at the University of Texas at Austin. Popescu has made many presenta-tions at national and international professional societies and taught many short courses and seminars for the construction industry.

He is a founding member of the project management charters in Austin, Texas and Bucharest, Romania. Richard C. Ryan is a professor of construction science at the University of Oklahoma. He received his B. He is a certified professional constructor and member of the American Institute of Constructors.

He continues to provide design consultation and building services. He has published over 30 journal articles and has contributed chapters to books.

Chapter 10 Construction Equipment Maintenance Utilities are located underground so that they are not visible and not placed in the way of other systems. Building sites are shaped to drain water away from the structure to a safe place. Bridges spanning rivers and valleys or tunnels through mountains provide suitable safe surfaces for travel.

Refineries provide fuel for cars traveling on our highways and bridges. Dams are built to change the face of the earth, harness to change natural power, and provide an essential resource to our existence, namely water. Heavy construction equipment is one of the primary reasons construction has reached this status.

Heavy construction work typically requires high-volume or high-capacity equipment. These requirements are typically driven by the large amount of work to be done and the amount of time to complete it.

This work can further be classified by whether the construction is vertical or horizontal. Vertical construction typically requires less surface work, earth moving, and excavating and more lifting.

Horizontal construction typically requires more surface work and limited lifting. There is a piece of equipment for practically any work activity, large or small. Construction equipment today is specifically designed by the manufacturer to perform certain mechanical operations that accomplish a work activity.

Working capacity is a direct function of the size of the machine and the power of the motor. These simple relationships exist — the larger the machine, the more power required for the operation, the greater the production capacity, and the greater the cost to own and operate. The dependency and need for heavy construction equipment have grown with the size and complexity of construction projects.

The development of automated heavy construction equipment for earthmoving, excavating, and lifting occurred in the last two centuries. Oper-ating and mechanical principles for most types of equipment are basically the same as when they first evolved many centuries ago. It should be noted that mechanical operations are typical for most basic classifications of equipment. For example, most front-end loaders work 1 They scoop at ground level, carry the load, hoist the load, and dump the bucket forward.

Caterpillar front-end loaders basically work the same way as Samsung or Case front-end loaders. Today it is assumed that if equipment does not exist to perform a necessary task, it can be designed and built. Heavy construction equipment manufacturers are very responsive to market needs and feedback from users.

Quite simply, design development of heavy construc-tion equipment is driven and evolves from the needs of the user market. Table 1. Whether self-performing or subcontracting the work, it is the job of the project planner, estimator, and field superintendent to match the right type of machine or combinations of machines to the work to be performed.

How effectively this is done will greatly influence the success of a construction project. The selection of a piece of heavy construction equipment a downloaders considers today is similar to selection of a car models and accessories.

There are many models of each type of equipment. These are not exactly luxury amenities, but most equipment is bought for dirty outdoor work and has the basic amenities. Different selections can be made for the motor, transmission, controls, wheels, buckets, blades, and numerous other items. There are accessories and attachments for most types of work. Hands and teeth were the first tools.

They were used to pick, dig, break, scrape, and shape. They were used to make other tools and shelter. Simple tools were eventually used to create a better living environment.

As the tools im-proved, the amount and speed with which construction work could be done increased. Therefore the scale and complexity of construction projects increased. This same development cycle continues today. A very important point to remember is that the evolution limitations for heavy construction equipment lie within the construction market that is serviced.

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As with all inventions, dramatic steps are the results of development and testing. This is very true for the evolution of heavy construction equipment. Most major heavy construction equipment advances have been made in the last years. Where we are today is not the result of one single invention, but a culmination of numerous mechanical and operating advancements. Heavy construction machines used today are the result of improvement after improvement based on the need to work more efficiently, effect-ively, and safely.

Simply put, the design and development goal is always to reduce cost, increase speed, and enhance safety. In parallel with equipment development, the study of productivity and cost for equipment have also become more sophisticated.

Machines are designed to be extensions of the oper-ators. Manufacturers are able to provide tested and documented technical and operating information to better help users understand impacts on their work production. Very import-antly, they are able to communicate best practices to increase production and promote safe operation. Many fundamental mechanical and operating principles for earth moving, excavating, compacting, and lifting equipment were proven and documented well before The challenge was to mechanize crude man-, horse-, mule-, or ox-drawn construction equipment that had evolved over several centuries of design enhancement.

Finding a greater and more reliable power source and mechanizing the operation were key motivators for design change. Discussion in this book will focus on the time period beginning in the early s. At the turn of the 19th century, the power source for heavy construction equipment was changing from man or livestock power to steam.

Waterways, canals, and ports were the main modes of transporting goods so it makes sense that floating equipment powered by steam would be developed for maintenance and new construction. The first primitive roads were constructed for horse-, mule-, and ox-drawn carriages and wagons. While crude roads were constructed, perhaps as importantly, merchants were realizing that newly constructed railroads were faster and more reliable than canals for transporting large amounts of goods.

The push for railroad construction in the mids was a huge catalyst for the development of land-operating earthmoving, excavating, and lifting machines. At that time, three main elements to construction equipment emerged—the power system, the carriage system and the on-board operating system.

These systems were developed essentially in response to the needs of the railroad industry [2]. Figure 1. His reaper was a mechanized land-operating unit pulled by a horse. The turning wheel on the reaper supplied power to operate a reciprocating knife that cut the grain.

The primary reason for the huge success of this machine was that two people could do the job of 14 men with reaping hooks.

The benefits were obvious. The ability to perform the work of many people is one of the primary reasons for the development of heavy equipment today. McCormick was a pioneer in the use of customer-based business practices for his equip-ment sales too. He allowed farmers to download on credit and pay for downloads using an installment plan by which payment could be made over time.

He educated his customers with demonstrations and training and advertised using satisfied customer testimonials. He set a fixed price for his He developed interchangeable replacement parts and stocked them for immediate installation. He trained mechanics and traveling salesmen to service his customers. Equipment manufacturers use these business practices today as part of their marketing strategies in an ever-increasing competitive market. Otis in shown in Figure 1. The shovel was rail-mounted and depended on tracks for mobility.

This is perhaps the first manufactured piece of self-powered, land-operating heavy construction equipment. Over the next several decades, the development of other tools that could be towed or pushed created a need for an equipment to replace livestock or humans as the sources of power. The first engine-powered farm tractor, the steam-powered Garrett 4CD, was intro-duced in Development of this tractor formally started the evolution of heavy construc-tion equipment.

Tractors ran on steel tires and soon began to be manufactured in different sizes. Numerous accessories were developed for use with a tractor. Blades were attached to the tractor front to push dirt around. Buggies pulled by tractors were used to transport excavated soil.

Tractors were used for a long time as the power components for many different types of construction equipment. It was not until the mids that manufacturers started developing integrated machines designed as one unit. The Holt Manufacturing Company manufactured the first steam-crawler tractor in It is shown in Figure 1.

This started a new direction for industry as the back wheels were replaced with tracks. The front wheel is called a tiller wheel.

The tractor loader shown in Figure 1. Dirt was loaded into the bucket by propelling the tractor into a dirt pile. Because of the market-driven nature of the development of construction equipment, historical events played a major role in creating the need for larger capacities and faster Photo Courtesy of Keith Haddock Collection.

The mass production of the Model T automobile in was perhaps one of the greatest indirect influences on the evolution of heavy construction equipment. The demand for roadways created a huge need for greater capacity and more powerful earth moving and excavating equipment.

Photo Courtesy of Caterpillar Inc. Corporate Archives. Federal Aid Road Act in , the federal aid highway system has created more need for heavy construction equipment than any other sector of the economy. Both world wars placed demands on heavy construction equipment manufacturers for different types and more versatile machines.

The boom after World War II saw hydraulics replace cables as a means of equipment control. In the s engines, transmissions and tires evolved into predictable efficient and maintainable components of heavy construction equip-ment. With the completion of the expansion of the railroad system and dam construction, the s saw an increasing amount of work in crowded urban areas.

This setting brought on a new set of safety and operating considerations. The s saw tremendous advances in construction techniques and associated technology for high-rise construction.

The s became the decade of steel-frame skyscraper construction in metropolitan areas. Develop-ment efforts were focused on building mechanized cranes with safer and more reliable control Canals Highways Railroads High rises First automated equipment: Otis steam shovel First scraper: Model T First road building machinery show: Columbus, OH First self-propelled motor grader First front-end loader: It became obvious that the ability to lift greatly influenced the efficiency of building higher structures.

Public attention and funding were also focused on designing and building mass-transit systems, water supply and treatment facilities, and utility and communications facilities. Ensuring safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women included ensuring the safety of construction equipment. Protective cab enclosures, automatic safety devices, noise, vibration, and dust control were only a few of the issues concerning construction equipment that OSHA included in its regulations.

PDF Construction Equipment Management for Engineers Estimators and Owners (Civil and Environmental

Civil, highway, and building construction companies are the largest users. The largest equipment pro-ducer in the world is Caterpillar. Statistical data related to the manufacture of equipment used in the construction industry can be found in the two SIC categories listed below [6]. The work to be done changes based on the type of project, but the activities that have to be performed are similar for all projects.

Activities include site work, the base or foundation, structure, and associated parts or connections. It could be a building, highway, dam, or refinery. The amount and types of machines required may vary, but the need for heavy construction equipment will always exist. Development and evolution of heavy construction equipment is predictable in many ways.

If we need bigger, we build bigger. If we need something new, we build it. Tempered by economic reality, equipment will be refined with necessity driving the design and development just as it has from the beginning.

That is the past and the future for heavy construction equipment development. These principles have not changed since man started developing tools. The work environment, power source, and operator may change drastically to something that we have As long as big structures are assembled and rest on surfaces, there will be a need for heavy construction equipment.

Several notable trends are emerging in the design and manufacturing of these machines.

Application of computer technology will provide the most significant changes in equipment design and use. Computer control of equipment systems is used to regulate and control fuel delivery and efficiency, exhaust emissions, hydraulic systems, power transfer, load sensing, Wireless technologies will increase mon-itoring and controlling features for equipment fleet management and production, eventually making remote operation of equipment a commercially available reality.

Lighter weight and stronger components made possible by advances in development of composite materials and alloys are making it possible for manufacturers to make smaller equipment units with greater power and productivity characteristics. Solutions Manuals are available for thousands of the most popular college and high school textbooks in subjects such as Math, Science Physics , Chemistry , Biology , Engineering Mechanical , Electrical , Civil , Business and more.

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Our interactive player makes it easy to find solutions to Construction Equipment Management for Engineers, Estimators, and Owners problems you're working on - just go to the chapter for your book. Hit a particularly tricky question? Bookmark it to easily review again before an exam.Then at the end of the year, they find that they had not accounted for the incurred costs of idle equipment impacting the actual profit margin. For 30 years starting from , he taught various courses in the areas of construction engineering and project management in the civil engineering department at the University of Texas at Austin.

International Harvester Company, Kaliakin McKinney This equipment is priced directly against the take-off quantities for the Project it is to be used on.

Request an e-inspection copy. In these instances, the estimator must check the actual costs of mobilization against the cap. Insurance cost.

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